More Dreaming

Visiting Kansas and took many, many pictures of interesting libraries including the Children’s Departments in Manhattan, Topeka, and Bonner Springs. We also peeked through the windows of the soon-to-open new Lenexa branch in Johnson County.

Manhattan Public. Like the outdoor space, graphic signs, and face-out picture book shelving.

Topeka & Shawnee County Public Library. Amazing art, love how the picture books are divided by topic and are face-out. The aquarium is uber-cool, too.

Bonner Springs – love the sight-lines, trains, and natural stone and wood and fireplace.

Sneak Peek through the windows of the new Lenexa branch. Nice, modern furniture but with touches of natural wood and great graphics.


Library Dream Board

As we consider and ponder a library renovation, we’ve visited libraries near and far for ideas and inspiration. Here are a few favorites.

First: Pottstown – they have a great maker space and I really like the mounted tablet catalog stations.

Second: New Monticello branch of the Johnson County Library (KS). Like the signage, meeting room, green roof, and small-footprint service desks.

Third: This is the Basehor Community Library (KS) and I LOVE the natural finishes, outdoor space (they have a butterfly garden), fireplace, and entry into the children’s department.

Fourth: Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh (PA) – Their main floor is very thoughtfully laid out, with the most popular materials near the front door and by the teen department. Very friendly vibe – very customer-focused.

Fifth: Free Library of Philadelphia branch remodels. Everything is mobile, they don’t put spine labels on fiction books, and the service desks are small.  I like the visual signage, as well, that hides acoustic tiles.

6th: Best in Library Design 2018 and 2017 – a hodge-podge of new construction and renovations.

I like the wooden floors and this is a LEED-level new build.

Eastham Public Library – Gold certified LEED building with classic/traditional aesthetic and plenty of amazing views to the outdoors.
Simple, classic furniture in traditional colors and easy-to-care-for leather.
Boston Public – like the bar for reading and computer use.
Natural light, stone, wood, and windows with bench seating. From a great article: Top 5 Library Design Trends from Demco.
Study spaces – control noise, allow for group study, and can be easily monitored.

PaLA: Reputation Management

A proactive, anticipatory and strategic approach with PPO&S – involved before PA Forward was established. Tracy Powelski

PA Forward and PR Marketing committee discussed and offer this to help when dealing with crisis.  “It takes many good deedsto build a good reputation, and only one bad one to lose it.” (or something like that from Ben Franklin).

  • Recognize the value of reputation
  • Learn how to enhance and protect a good reputation
  • Be among the prepared minority
  • Assess opportunities and vulnerabilities
  • Identify concrete next steps

What comes to mind when you think about an organization’s reputation?
Trust, how viewed by community, any mishaps, people, how the culture is projected, atmosphere/tone, mission/authenticity, transparency, live up to promise of their brand?

How others perceive you – based upon what they know about your organization’s behavior or past performance.”

Why should you care?
Quantifiable asset – brand loyalty, credibility, funding consequences, recruitment, media coverage, responsibility and ethics.  What role does the library play in your community – recognition and reputation.

Who owns your reputation?
You, your employees, customers, suppliers and partners, board – what experience do people have when they come to your library.

What is the relationship between Reputation and Trust?
Reputation – what people know about you based on past behavior and TRUST is expectation of future behavior based on past behavior.

Reputation Management:

  • Maximizing Good will:
    • Tell Your Story – know what story you want to tell, develop key messages, know the difference between paid and earned communications channels (more impact from earned communications – 3rd party endorsement), take an integrated approach, strategic communications calendar (most impact of SRP, back to school, New years resolutions, day before a snowstorm), consider media training. Community, early literacy, still viable.
      • If you don’t tell your story someone else will tell it for you.
    • Be social in the digital sense – What channels are most appropriate, internal protocols, set clear guidelines, monitor social media, and be prepared for rapid response and before the fire storm hits.
    • Leverage leadership and expertise – Be the subject matter expert, invite thought leaders/legislators for a local tour or event, “tip of the spear when it comes to innovation and information,” build relationships before you need them, don’t underestimate third party awards and recognition, and promote endorsements and testimonials. Don’t take it for granted that people know all you do and ‘how wonderful you are.’ Invite and tell them your role in the community. Trip advisor, Yelp, Google – conversations going on about you. Power of the collective voice shouldn’t be underestimated.
    • Get engaged in relevant issues – What issues are important to us? Security, funding, opioids, homelessness, unattended children, censorship.  Stay informed, lean on public policy leadership, know key influencers, and testify on behalf of your cause.
    • Be visible – think strategically about how to maximize impact, measure and evaluate impact, publish an annual social responsibility report that wraps up and articulates your accomplishments.  We have to let our constituents know how well we are serving them.
    • Engage and communicate with employees/volunteers – foster a culture of trust and transparency, communicate regularly, be sure employees hear news form you, recognize and appreciate your employees, and create a feedback loop for two-way communication.
  • Prepare for challenges:
    • Everyone face funding, labor issues, security reaches, big tech changes, crimes on property, changes in competitive landscape, and peripheral issues “splatter factor” – What do you do to make sure you are a good steward of collection and tax-payer dollars. (Mickey’s weeding program at KLA/MLA comes to mind.) How do you see around the corner and see risk. Contingency planning and scenarios.
    • What are we worried about? children, addicts, homeless, theft and then moves to disruption. Model of the past may not serve us in the future. Worry about the loss of trust and sense of security at the library.
    • People will measure you on how you respond.  Speed, transparency, carefulness – hard to juggle. May forgive one mis-step, but beware of trends.
  • Continually assess:
    • How do you know where you stand?
    • Governance protocols – are we following our bylaws? chain of command
    • Strategic communication plan – key messages prepared and ready when needed
    • Crisis communication plans – right people know their roles and responsibilities?
    • Top-level – tone matters, what’s the culture?
    • Tradition and digital media analytics
    • Scenarios and contingency mapping
    • Social media protocols
    • Employee/internal communications – let people know where we stand and what their role is in the future
    • Community engagement practices
    • Post-issue assessments/debriefs – Example of theft at Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh. Take a look and ask “what lessons did we learn and what did we do right?”  Opportunity for growth.  Learn from our mistakes

A Reputation Audit

  • How we’re perceived
  • How our organization is covered by the media
  • Gaps?
  • How to improve our position
  • Need to update crisis communication plan,
  • Risk Management,
  • succession planning – BIG  Need to talk about it. Can “rock an organization as much as anything.”
  • Spokesperson training/leadership communications
  • Strategic comm plan
  • Learn that you don’t know what you don’t know – need more research
  • Need internal communication platform – MOST OFTEN NEEDED Too externally focused
  • Social media protocols
  • changes in org roles and responsibilities, ex social services in the library, do we have the right people in the right roles

Audit may prevent:

  • litigation
  • loss of funding
  • no confidence vote

Recap: You can fine tune your org’s reputation and improve your potential by:

  • Tell story
  • Your reputation is’t about everything that matters


  • Internal communication audit – explore what the staff wants and how they want it and frequently enough.  A focus group to talk about is a demonstration of your dedication to help solve the problem. Five generations in the workplace – how to communicate among these very different groups – bridge that gap
  • Determine who the spokesperson is – a single voice. Remind staff who that person is. Need to stay on message. How do we get training? Build a scenario and put them on video and escalate, starting with key messages. Confidence building exercise. Have a process in place to help remove some of the anxiety. Public Information Officer training for crisis response and how to talk to the media – talk to your emergency professional. County training offered example – How to get information out on multiple streams – video, FB, etc. But how to handle library flashpoint issues, ex pornography – need this KIND OF TRAINING.  Think about it ahead of time, so you don’t make it worse.
  • OK to say “Let me get back to you” and a key tool – “Let me write your question down and what’s your deadline?”  If ambushed, you can bribe and deflect, “I’m afraid I’m going to have to get back to you on that.” Talk to the police. Don’t confirm or deny. Under no obligation to answer on the fly – don’t be baited. “I can’t comment at this time, but I’ll get back to you.”
  • Train on confidentiality and how to react to the police the same as we react to the media. Similar tactics. Everyone should know the protocols. SWPLA – support staff as ambassador’s training in November. Need to be careful about what you say and how you say it. The interview is NEVER over or only over when you hang up the phone. Don’t let your guard down. OK to ask for a correction – you misquoted me.
  • Have some canned talking points available on hot-button topics. SCRIPTS. Leak through a trusted source or person in media you have a positive relationship.
  • Convey ALL OF THIS TO YOUR BOARD – They will be called and they will need to answer.
  • How do you address an issue after-the-fact. Aftermath and rebuild trust? Let people know that it’s not your policy to communicate during an active investigation. The protocols. Cooperating closely with law enforcement and their directive.





PaLA: Successful Libraries

Panel of Librarians from various types and sizes of libraries, also with various organizational types.

David Belanger, facilitator, started us out by discussing the many, many configurations of libraries in Pennsylvania. We will learn the pros and cons of there configs and how it impacts their success.

Cathi Alloway: State College library the only library governed by a Council of Governance – loose consortium of government entities (municipalities/counties).  Usually they manage coordinated road projects, but bigger COGs do more including the library.  Library has to go to the finance committee (39 elected officials) and each municipality pays a portion based on circulation. Standard and predictable funding formula. COG handles personnel and other centralized services. There are 84 COGs in the state – if interested, go to a monthly meeting. Cathi feels they are underutilized.

Amy Geisinger: DLC in New Castle. Federated library systems – there are many, but they are different. Serve all residents of their county – benefit. Standards of expectations and similar rules/regs. Have independent Boards that may conflict with over-arching Board regarding policies and procedures. Can gear your programs and materials to your direct service area – don’t have to be county-wide programs.  Have more independent control. Tension…an issue in most FLS’s – difficult to make consolidated decisions.  Funding issues – county money, but municipalities may feel they can provide less local funding. Struggle to get the funding you need. Pros – work together to provide consistent service, but struggles of an independent library and doing everything on your own.

Nicole Hemline: Monroeville PL, Municipal department. Receive 70% funding through city, but also part of a federated system. “Department when convenient.” Gives Council a sense of ownership. Vested. Employee benefits are wonderful – same pool as union employees. Fringe benefits – snow, grass, HR questions, Lawyer, Finance support. “Sometimes the red-headed step child.”  Built-in partnership with Senior Center and Parks & Rec – greater reach. In the loop of Community needs and awareness of city issues.  Drawbacks: politics and dealing with Council and Mayor (may insert pressure), more red tape, slower decisions/procedures to be followed, answer to a lot of people – Board, Mayor, Municipal Manger. False sense of security and complacency a risk. Not a 501c3 – need a Friends group or Foundation. Lots of Communication a pro and Showing Up is a “huge deal”.  Show up at Council meetings and slowly build relationships and bring solutions and not just asks for money.

Rob Lesher: Former ED of Dauphin County Library System – Consolidated Library System (CLS) and also at a FLS. Takes advantage of efficiencies – ONE admin unit runs the system. CLS – usually county-wide level. One Board of Directors, selected at-large from throughout the county. One set of elected officials you are responsible. Consistent message. Con: Having just the one group, funding can be a challenge. Rogue politicians who could have a huge impact on funding. Need to ensure positive relationships. CLS has staff consistency – everyone trained together at one time. But, you have multiple locations and need to be able to move staff around the county. Opportunities to have consistent branding/messaging. Central library/branches – patrons identify with the building that they go to and the branding may not relate to the county, but the local branch. Streamline planning, as well. Ownership of multiple buildings – maintenance!  When planning, impacts financial needs.

Cindy DeLuca : Rural local independent library in the Poconos. 501c3 – 110 years old from a lady’s club. Small budget for 85 years – now budget over $300,000 because of local tax referendum funding.  Went to super voters in a primary election and in 73% voted YES.  Must rely on local support – “have to grow up and realize that.”  Go back for more $$ every 10 years – don’t wait. Climate of tax payers change.  Fundraise – a difficult part, but have 2 family foundations that help underwrite funding. Small, rural – it’s all about knowing people, donors, and you have to ASK.  Board of 10, with 4 from municipalities. Pros: Effect change immediately and easier to initiate new services in response to the community.  People feel vested in their community library – ownership – they paid for it!  Also ability to collaborate. Cons: Funding impacted by real estate values. Staff issues and HR – can’t afford crazy expensive benefits. Lots of part-time employees and low pay. Dependent on budget and challenges are same as, just a different scale. Local Funding and always create positive relationships.

Patrons don’t care – they just want their stuff, but we need to be aware and consider new relationships to improve service (as suggested by Christi, director of PaLA) – and “be stronger when you leave today.”

How to you manage perceived competition from a funding formulas in a federated system. Amy – I have no idea!  Always an issue that you compete for funding. Have to work together and coordinate who you tap and then share the funding. How do you work toward the greater good?  David suggests you Start the conversation agree to decide what the formula will accomplish – everyone gets a little, do you have a service goal, is it based on use – general discussion of philosophy. Law suits have happened.

Cons for COG structure? No, except it is a lot of work for the elected officials. Lots of meetings, many Boards to report to, including a Foundation board. Life of emails and meetings. Like it and encourage libraries to look into COGs. So much time spent on inter-library squabbles! PA is 49th in local funding, but with D.C., we are 2 from the bottom 🙂

Has anyone had experience with transition from one to another structure. Nicole moved from a 501c3 to FLS to Municipal. Constant fundraising and tight cash flow. Always projected a deficit, but never ran it. FLS squabbles. Like having experience of show your value.  Prove ourselves everyday regardless of what type of library you have. Springfield Township went from 501c3, but in 2007 changed to Township department. Governing Board turned into an Advisory Board, but that transition was hard for the Board.  Her boss became the  Manager and Council. “Born on the wrong side of the street.” What made the Township agree to take it over?  Driven by 2003 state funding cut – Township said they’d make up the difference, but then the 2nd cut the Board asked the Township to take over the library.  Nothing in writing – so hard to get money.

No change of a Federated to Consolidated since 1980 – Dauphin County. – Peters Township just changed from Indep. to Municipal government, but still part of a federated system. Joys of being a Commonwealth.

Why don’t we create a PA Think Tank and restructure our libraries. NY does it better (most based on school district boundaries and referendums are common). Tap into the collective to find better ways of organizing libraries.  “Very dug in.”  Be open minded. In preparing for Library Legislative Day – handout about library funding in PA. 85% of our libraries are 501c3s (Maine is 2nd with 55%). We have to be fundraisers, as well as library directors. “With increased funding and support, libraries will move PA forward.”

Changes can be incremental – Maybe they won’t increase your revenue, but ask them to take ownership of other services (grass, snow removal, etc.)

Wayne County library alliance – county saves us. Failed referendum. Population now more interested in local funding – many new residents from NY/NJ and different expectations of service and funding. Farmers would get hammered, but puts the funding in terms of pizza and soda!  Repealed tax after referendum was passed. Study said support is currently at 48%.

In some small, rural areas money is getting tighter. What happens if the library closes? Transition? change ownership? Robin took on a library as a branch. All cons in the beginning, but starting to see a few pros. Communication between Council, Manager and Residents was poor – they didn’t know anything. Came in and ‘took over’ and fired ‘beloved staff’ and ‘shut the library down’ (to do keystone grant upgrades). So now have new staff, better positive press.  Community beginning to change perception. Must have BUY IN from the council, not just the city manager.

PaLA: Digital Analysis of Your Physical Materials

Reading Public Library – Physical Collections Analysis 2018 with Carl Long & Mike Najarian

What is it?

  • Digital Analysis – Catalog/ILS, SQL (Polaris reports), & Excel spreadsheets – of Physical, print/non-print materials
  • Utilize SQL if needed for huge or customized reports (We need to talk to Mike about his SQL reports!!)
  • Excel Pivot table – ‘a magical thing’ provides quick-sums of a larger table of data
  • Excluded lost missing, withdrawn, etc., but include held, in transit, in repair, etc.
  • Analysis of usage statistics as a key point of collection development

Why and Who should Do This?

  • Humans have a difficult time with large numbers (apple v. cornflakes)
  • Base decision on evidence, not instinct
  • Inexpensive and expeditious after the first time.
  • Everyone should – especially small libraries with limited funds
  • Assess if collection is meeting user needs, reduce subjectivity, steer the ship

Why Do this?

  • Print isn’t dead and we should manage what we have until it is actually obsolete. Helps with bias.


  • Analyzing library collections with Excel by T. Greiner
  • Clean up data.
  • Then I quit taking notes because I was too busy listening!  Pivot tables are awesome and I can’t wait to try this method…if we can get the initial data dump from Polaris.

PaLA: Employment Law in the Library

Phil Miles from McQuaid Blasko Attorneys at Law. Monday, Oct. 15, 2018.

Three Points:

  • Sexual Harassment (#MeToo)
  • Accommodations for Religion and Disability
  • Wage and Hour (overtime and exemptions)

Sexual Harassment

  • “firestorm of allegations of rampant sexual misconduct that have been closeted for years, not reported by the victims.” – Minarsky v. Susquehanna County
  • Prima Facie Elements – harassment based on protected class, hostile work environment or  “tangible employment action, such as being fired
    • Severe or pervasive harassment – assault v. inappropriate jokes. frequent conduct over a period of time
    • Offensive and Unwelcome – objectively offensive by a reasonable person v. subjectively offensive – is it true, is the person making the claim actually offended.
    • Who is doing the harassment? Supervisor is anyone with power to take a tangible employment action (change pay, hire, fire, etc.). Default is that employer is liable if a Supervisor is guilty of harassment.
      • Vicarious Liability, BUT…
        • Training for supervisors and make clear all avenues for reporting harassment. Chain of command option (Supervisor) and outside that chain option (Board)
        • Policy with clear procedures – and reports go to person with understanding and authority to take action
      • Affirmative Defense – did the employer do ‘in their defense’ to escape liability?
        • employer exercised reasonable care to prevent and correct promptly any harassment; and
          • What did you do when you found out about it? How did you investigate it? Was the response retaliatory?
        • Plaintiff unreasonably failed to take advantage of an preventive or corrective opportunities.
          • Employee doesn’t report it or tells HR not to do anything
  • unwelcome harassment
  • Harassment by Co-worker or Third Party – can be held liable for customer harassment or a Board member
    • Negligence Standard: didn’t act reasonably
      • Employer knew or should have knows about the harassment; and
      • Employer failed to take prompt and appropriate actions to stop the harassment. Employer should take reasonable action – warnings, investigations – but not obligated to stop the harassment.
        • Harassment in a public place question (patron) – there is a criminal harassment law, but a ‘really high bar’. Employer has to try and stop the harassment.
    • Minarsky v. Susquehanna County
      • Policy in place, employer gave the plaintiff the policy, the employee failed to report the harassment and the employer fired the harassing supervisor.
      • Employer still liable! Why?  Other employees had reported inappropriate comments, employer still allowed plaintiff to work alone with supervisor and probably should have known better.  Given current climate, the situation was interpreted differently and the employer was liable. Employer could talk with the plaintiff, make sure they aren’t working alone, etc. “known or should of known” – common knowledge of a groper, for example. Employee didn’t report out of fear of being fired or retaliated against.
      • How do we investigate this? Talk to the reporter – any witnesses? Any supporting docs? Follow up with accused. Maintain confidentiality, if possible.


  • Religion; and
  • Disability
  • Prima Facie Elements: have or had a disability; qualified for the position; employer knew or should have known about the need for an accommodation; and a reasonable accommodation exists, but the employer failed to provide it.
  • Examples: deafness, blindness, mobility issue; intellectual disability, bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder; HIV, cancer
  • Obligation: engage in interactive process. Employee expresses the need and talk with employee about functions and best way to accommodate them. Just need to know what they can’t do and how can employer help them do it. Doesn’t have to be the accommodation the employee suggests – if it’s an undue hardship, you may not have to implement an accommodation.
    • OK to ask – are you able to complete essential functions of the job. With conditional employment, you can assess their abilities
    • Employee has to be qualified – perform essential functions as described in job description. We can request a medical certification that they can do the job (hearing test requirement) – based on our observations that there are essential functions that cannot be done.
    • Undue Hardship – significant difficulty or expense in relation to the size of company, its resources, and the nature of its operations. “Unduly, costly, extensive, substantial, or disruptive or that would require fundamental alteration of the nature or operation of the business.”
  • Religious beliefs – existence of a sincere religious belief or practice that conflicts with an employment requirement. Employer was informed. Employee suffered an adverse employment outcome.
    • Atheism and agnosticism included in definition of religion. must be sincerely held (look for contradictory behavior), “all aspects of religious observance and practice, as well as belief…”
    • Undue hardship analysis – church of body modification people working at costco – take them out or cover them up.  Costco won when people wouldn’t do that.
    • Easier to establish undue hardship for religion.  With religion – also ask if they cannot meat the requirements of the job (dress policy, days they work)
    • Add working with diverse groups is an essential function – you may have to serve people with beliefs that are different than you.

Wage and Hour

  • Min Wage ($7.25) and if they work more than 40, pay them time-and-a-half ovetime
  • Overtime – 150% of regular rate for hours over 40 in work week. Work week is a fixed and recurring period of 7 consecutive days. Regular Rate is total compensation divided by total hours. How do you calculate salary?
  • White collar exemptions
    • Executive – Salary of $455/wk. Manager, Authority to hire/fire. Direct the work of 2or more full-time employees (or equivalent).
    • Administrative – Salary of $455, office work related to management, exercises discretion and independent judgment.
    • Learned Professional – People with advanced degrees, Salary of $455/wk. predominantly intellectual work in character, and entails the consistent exercise of discretion and judgment.
  • Proposed Pennsylvania regulation:
    • Min. salary amount is increased to $610 per week, to $766 per week 1 year after the effective date; and $921 per week 2 years after the effective date.

Q & A

  • Evaluations – Why do them, they can be demoralizing, and you should handle conflicts at the time they occur.  Provide feedback in absence of constant feedback, Opportunity for additional input by others, Helps prevent litigation because it makes bad performance known to employee. Evaluation needs to reflect reality, be honest critiques, and show areas of employment. Measurable outcomes – objectively verifiable – better than subjective statements. Replace it with an ongoing method to record positive and negative. Is it in Policy to do evaluations?  If so, open up library to liability.
  • “Off the Clock” resources – Either work off the clock or buy things without asking for reimbursement. Exempt employees can work off the clock – salaried. Non-exempt employees and hourly employees have to be paid for work that employer knows about or should know about. Date stamp of emails could prove they’re working at home.  Obligated to pay them if we know about it. If we have reason to know the time sheet is wrong – we have to look into it and pay them.
    • You can be salaried and non-exempt.
    • Discipline for working after being told not to work from home. Putting the employer at risk for liability and unpaid overtime.
    • Volunteers – has to be truly voluntary and there not be an expectation for pay
      • Can off-set hours in the same week.
    • 40 hours per week – anything over in one work week – is overtime.
    • What about staff reviewing emails and texts? De minimis – depends on the amount of time spent (10page email sent at 8 pm v. responding to an email.)
    • Pay in 15-min increments and round – as long as it doesn’t systematically discriminate – come in 5 min early or late.
    • Non-exempt to conference – what is required to do, paid for travel during work time, but not paid for entire time here – what time benefits the employer? Paid for that time.
  • Resignation – Can you fire someone with a mental illness who has been missing continuous shifts?
    • If missing work because of a health issue – are you covered by FMLA?  Request or tell employee that we believe you’re missing work and need a medical certification. ADA covers mental illness – obligation to provide reasonable accommodation, as long as it doesn’t impose an undue hardship. Showing up may be an essential function of the job!  Depends on job, library, etc.
    • Moral concern – could we be making it worse by asking for medical certification!  Ask if they need leave and let them know you are willing to provide it OR ask if we can work with them and that showing up is necessary.  Treat them the same as others who call in sick?
    • If forced to resign, may still get unemployment comp. But would need to be available for other work. Problems caused by employer, but still able to work in a different environment.
  • Sick leave and Scheduling
    • Have a policy that constitutes sick leave – define it. Is it PTO or a benefit restricted to health-related reasons.
    • How do you know when it is being abused?  Suspicious usage can require doctor’s notes moving forward. Find patterns. A one-off or isolated incident can be documented in case it happens again.
    • Provide incentive program – pay out unused.
    • Is there a right to use sick leave? Must be consistent with policy.
    • Same FMLA and ADA concerns – what is the underlying issue? Do they need leave or accommodation.
    • Can you send a sick person home?  If it’s related to a  disability it might cause a fight, but not a strong risk. Have in policy about when you can be sent home (contagious, infectious, unable to do the essential functions).
    • Can require medical certification – look at EEOC for resources on exams and such.
  • Board Member and Personnel Files
    • Directors can inspect corp. records and documents and review the documents of the entity.  There’s a specific law. Fiduciary duties require you to see these files.
    • Personnel files are not inherently confidential. Medical files ARE confidential – Keep it in a separate file/place.
    • Employee has a right to view their personnel file.
  • Board Members and Empolyees
    • What’s allowed to be said in a meeting about employees? What is allowed to be said?
    • Defamation issue – If you say something damaging to a persons reputation and it isn’t true. Subjective statements are opinion. If accused of a serious crime – there is a presumption that it hurts a persons reputation.
    • Frame it factually – “We’ve had issues with money missing, conducting investigation, Jane saw John remove money, and the money goes missing during John’s shift.”  No accusation, just the facts.
    • Common interest privilege – discuss something for mutual benefit.
    • Don’t over-publicize – email to all is sending info more broadly than needed.
  • Guns
    • Can an employer make a policy that employees are not to bring guns or other weapons to work, even if properly licensed?
    • Certain sensitive areas, like government buildings, where you can allow banning of guns – Justice Scalia
    • Weapons allowed in public spaces in PA if properly licensed.
    • State laws pre-empt local laws.
    • Private libraries can ban guns, more easily. Public Library as a ‘sensitive place’ and regulate employees.
  • Employee
    • Staff person working 40 hours AND 18 hours for cleaning. Over time for 2 jobs? Yes, probably…but…if 40 hour a week job is exempt, then just include cleaning as duty.  If non-exempt, then they have to be paid for hours beyond 40 hours.
    • Regulation: Agree ahead of time to pay different rates for 2nd job. cleaning job at different rate. Then 150% of different rate for overtime – get it in writing.
    • Kids coming to help and performing work for benefit – violate child labor laws.
    • Board approved it.
    • Very concerning.
  • Posters
    • Required – yes, just buy the poster.
    • Laws have different posting requirements
    • Can get it from payroll company, often
    • e-Laws poster advisor online at Dept. of Labor
  • Discrimination
    • Employers with less than 15 employees can get away with discrimination – true?
    • Title VII and ADA cover 15 or more employees. Federal statutes.
    • State Human Relations Act – applies to employers with 4 or more employees.
    • Public employees covered by constitution amendments, both state and federal
    • PA says if you have less than 4 employees and are private, you may have a defense available to you.
  • Time
    • Comp time, flex time, overtime
    • Allow discretion over employee schedule. Can work Mon-Thur. 10 hours instead Mon-Fri 8 hours. No overtime.
    • Comp time prohibited for private employers, generally.
    • Public employer – have to have agreement in advance, cap it – can only earn XXX and have to pay out the balance at separation.


PaLA: Know Your Community

Sunday, October 14, 2018. Nicole Hemline, Director of Monroeville Public Library, and Sara Jane Lowry Consulting  and Michelle Puzzanchera Associates, LLC

Pre-discussion with Margie: sticker voting for needs assessment. “Did you come today to check out a book or use a computer?” “Do you think the Library hours are good? Y/N”

Overview of the Community

What do they need and what does the community love? Help determine what needs to be kept, what services are most relevant. Non probability sample survey – community perceptions. Lack of a town center, but library functioned as that center.

Start with an Assessment – Going through Harwood process and people want to feel a sense of community. Connecting people together – an outcome.

Prepping the Needs Assessment:

  • Need for Library
  • Goals
  • People think of us 1st
  • Priority niches – can’t be all things to all people
  • Gaps – what population should we focus more on that we are not service
  • Steering Committee: Library staff, Board, Friends, Community stakeholders (Chamber of commerce, municipal liaison, community college, etc.)


  • Weekly task force meetings,
  • Beta testing
  • Create a FAQ sheet for public – “is my info confidential?”
  • Ran a lottery to encourage survey-taking
  • Train volunteers and staff – online survey (larger community)
  • Kickoff – 1 month
  • Conclude and provide a report on the data
  • Be flexible – take advantage of events, etc.

Share tasks and create accountability – delegate and train – all the little details (distribute to schools, gift cards, lik/button on website, Make sure slip is placed in Annual appeal, etc.)

Developing the Survey – Michelle

Convenience sample, with snowball tendencies. Start with Library users, but hoped to reach non-users at community events. Reached out to leaders and asking that the survey be sent to mailing list of the group (snowball). Less of a drain on fiscal resources, but can’t speak statistically to how representative the sample is.

Survey Development:

  • Decide what you want to know.  Do you want attitudes or behaviors? Do you want to ask about knowledge or gather info about attributes (demographics)
  • Determine general content areas,
  • Generate a list of questions and organize them under content areas,
  • Determine type of info sought,
  • Decide on question structure: Choose words that express the question and Reflect the information sought – use outside help – Handout online  How you ask a question really does matter.
  • Prepare introduction letter, instructions, etc.

Test the Survey

  • Piloting – trying out the entire survey process
  • Pre-testing – trying out questionnaire only – slow readers v. fast readers.  Length is important – not too many questions. Can use skip-logic with survey monkey online survey. Are you using conventional language?Are choices exhaustive? What’s been left out and needs added?
  • Want to identify problems:
    • Are questions/instructions clear?
    • Do people understand how to respond?
    • Are choices mutually exclusive, exhaustive?

Data Collection and Reporting

Logistics – identify sites, leaders, volunteers, schedules, equipment needs, etc.

Training, Best practices, Review survey, and Consider an “interviewer’s Kit”.  Ethics, confidentiality, inadvertent bias, background of project, how to approach people without scaring them and explain the incentives, and have volunteers practice taking the survey on the devices. FAQ sheet for data collection team. Branding and introduction letter – people want to verify and are more privacy conscious.

Flyers with tear-offs, Bitly for tiny url, business card-size handouts. Have something a person could take home with them.

Reporting Findings –

  • Report total number of respondents for every question N=XX
  • Report percentages – easier to compare
  • Use graphs for web-based survey or create graphs in Excel – Bar Graphs – easiest to interpret and comprehend.
  • Code open-ended response by looking for common themes, report percentages.
    • “What do you like best?” Code answers customer service, collection, – shove answers into areas and then categorize more granularly.
    • Show to staff first before going to the Board for re-interpretation.
    • Harvest quotes and put them in a database.  Positive feedback and interesting conspiracy theories 🙂
    • Asked about community issues and if the library was involves in solving community problems. Many saw library as partner in finding a solution.
    • Use them sparingly, but they provide rich content
  • Examine difference in sub-groups by demographics (age, level of education). Pivot tables. Gave new information and reinforced the good work they were already doing.

Library was raising money for an elevator during the same time. Staff turnover was high during the process, as well.

Challenges: marketing component, needed more internal communication and social media buzz, didn’t meet the goal, some volunteers didn’t follow through,

Perception is Reality – If schools are hot-button, make sure community knows how you work with the school district. Drugs? Crime? Traffic… Hold on to what you know about the community – weave through what is real and what is not.  Focus groups to explore some of those issues – a place to get clearer about some information that comes out of the surveys. Use Harwood conversations to help explain.  Ex: Safety is an issue, but people don’t feel unsafe when asked!

Ask for technical app that made survey easier to use on iPads. If doing a phone survey, have caller use the online survey for prompts – use exact same language.

“One no is enough” – do not talk a person into taking the survey. It isn’t ethical. Ask a question about if you are a cardholder of the library (93% were users). Focus on “we are improving the community” and not just focus on the library. If a non-user answered now, they didn’t know how to answer anything else!  Skip logic? “What would entice you to use the library?” Hint: Put library card holder question at the end near demographics.  When making the survey, think about flow and how comfortable it is to complete. Ask if a person agrees with a statement, ex. “Does your child need financial aid?” Bigger life and community challenges were the focus. Touch on job training, education, starting a business, training – speaks to real life needs. Then position library as a place that can help you solve those needs.





Opportunity: MCLINC Executive Director

The Montgomery County Library Information & Network Consortium (MCLINC) is looking for a person with the perfect combination of vision, leadership, and ILS-expertise to be our next Executive Director.  The deadline for applying is Oct. 15.

All but four of the public libraries in Montgomery County, a beautiful suburb of Philadelphia, belong to the Consortium and we share our materials on the MCLINC network using Polaris 6.0 hosted in the cloud. The staff is small but strong, with an amazing Network Manager, dedicated Administrative Assistant/Office Manager/Polaris troubleshooter, and our helpful Network Administrator. This is an opportunity to be a part of the technology team, but also take the lead on developing the ILS to ensure we are getting the best user experience out of it for our customers. The Board of Directors (I’m lucky enough to be President this year) is a fun mix of seasoned and new professionals with diverse backgrounds, strong viewpoints, and high expectations for the type of customer service we want to provide our patrons. We rely on our staff-run committees – technology, circulation, reference, and cataloging/database – to work through issues and bring recommendations and policy suggestions to the Board for consideration. Our new Strategic Plan provides a road map for our immediate goals, as well as a few aspirations.

(Please don’t be turned off by our Web site – a complete redesign is in the plan!)

2018 Librarian’s Guide to Homelessness

Multi-district workshop on Friday, May 18, 2018, King of Prussia, PA
Speaker: Ryan Dowd, runs the 2nd largest homeless shelter in Illinois, is Founder of the Homeless Training Institute and author of ALA’s book “The Library Guide to Homelessness.”

Web site:

You can subscribe to his weekly newsletter from the home page.


Four Goals of Training: Recognize the power we have to resolve problems | Have great confidence doing so | Our library will have fewer problems | Our library will be more compassionate and inclusive

Keys: Empathy-Driven Enforcement and the Psychology of Voluntary Compliance
Notes in bold are taken directly from the note guide.
PART 1 – Deeper Understanding of Homelessness
The cycle of inter-generational poverty leads to a culture of poverty and economic apartheid.  There several types of homelessness, but chronic homelessness involves people with multiple problems, including mental illness.  Homeless individuals grew up poor and due the cycles of inter-generational poverty, they are part of a culture of poverty.  For example, compared to middle class culture, they understand how to travel 20 miles using multiple types of public transportation, know when sales happen at different thrift stores, and how to move their family with less than 24 hours notice.
Homeless individuals have a different communication style.  They have a smaller vocabulary, missing things like adverbs and other descriptors, making it harder to communicate. A middle class 3 year old has a much larger vocabulary than an adult who grew up in poverty.
Homeless individuals speak differently, have a smaller vocabulary, and pay more attention to nonverbal cues than you. Middle class children learn to differentiate between Casual Register appropriate for friends and family (includes slang and cussing) and Formal Register appropriate for job interviews, professionals, and people in positions of authority (police) (does NOT include cussing).  Children raised in poverty do NOT learn Formal register and us casual register with everyone.  This can lead to misunderstandings and ‘rudeness.’ They use body cues to determine meaning – How you say something matters more than what you say.  Use simple words, but use non-verbal cues like volume, inflection, and body language to give meaning.
Homeless individuals argue differently than you. The middle class are quieter, keeping their voice at a “level 2” and only resort to “level 10” volume when on the verge of violence (screaming at a kidnapper, for example). Poverty is LOUD – shelters are loud, a large family living in a small space is loud, so any feelings beyond calm, from annoyed to angry to furious, goes from a “level 2” to a “level 9”.  It is hard for the middle class to differentiate between “level 9” of “annoyed” and a “level 10” of “violence.”
Homeless individuals have experienced more trauma than you. Children raised in poverty and homeless individuals have experienced more sexual and physical violence, including traumatic brain injuries that kills off parts of the brain.  The brain trauma leads to mis-perceived threat stimuli (so everything seems threatening and causes an overreaction) and to difficulty self-regulating anxiety and anger – it’s hard to regulate emotions.  Homeless individuals get anxious and angry faster, they stay agitated longer, and it takes longer to calm down. They also suffer from PTSD.
Homeless individuals have experienced more punishment than you.  They have experienced so much they are habituated to it and give up being good.  Punishment beyond 24 hours is not effective because Homeless individuals have a different worldview than you and only focus on their needs for the next 24 hours.  A middle class person has a “time horizon” of 70+ years, roughly a lifetime, while a homeless person only looks forward 24 hours.  They are in survival mode and focused on immediate needs – food, sleep, and safety trump retirement planning and mortgages.  If a problem can’t be resolved in 24 hours, it derails the homeless person.  The average lifespan of a homeless person is 30 years less than a middle class person.
Homeless individuals view respect differently than you.  In the middle class, respect is granted or given automatically and (we) expect to get respect in return.  Respect is the other person’s to lose.  In the culture of poverty, this is flipped.  You must EARN respect first, or you’re a chump.
Homeless individuals view protection, retaliation, and insults differently than you. There are three dominant cultures in the world: Face culture (Asian), Dignity Culture (USA, Australia and Western Europe) and Honor Culture (Latin America, Africa, Urban poverty, and Middle East).
Dignity Culture: trusts the rule of law, strong authority figures, relative affluence, protection is through the police or government and courts, retaliation is viewed as tacky, and insults are viewed with amusement or ignored.
Honor Culture: distrusts the government, weak authority, high corruption, high competition for resources, protection is through self-defense, retaliation is essential – to prove your reputation for self-defense is to ensure safety and is a shield against violence and secures future safety.  Insults are seen as a probe for weakness and they MUST retaliate against insults for self-preservation.
Do NOT Insult homeless individuals, as they live in an Honor Culture.
Homeless individuals have different triggers than you: Uninvited touch and unfairness.  Uninvited touch triggers past traumas (muggings, sexual assault).  Unfairness and discrimination and being treated as undesirable or being treated as ‘lesser’, being dismissed, ignored or talked down to are also triggers.  People enjoying their misfortune are triggers – 10% of the population are “everyday sadists” who enjoy giving people a hard time, enforcing the rules, singling out the homeless for poor treatment, bullying the powerless.  Homeless individuals are OK if everyone is treated poorly (like at the DMV), because at least it’s fair treatment.
Part II – Punishment
What is punishment?  Threat to enforce compliance and just making people feel bad.  “I’m so disappointed in you, child.” < That is a form of punishment.
The Problem with Punishment: mental illness makes punishment less effective, as does substance abuse, being habituated to punishment, past trauma, having a short time horizon, and growing up in the honor culture where insults are taken with great seriousness.  In fact, punishment oftentimes has the OPPOSITE effect of what you intended. 
You can keep punishing until everyone is banned and you hate your job, you can allow anarchy and not enforce any rules, or you can find a way to get people to follow the rules voluntarily!
A new paradigm: Empathy-Driven Enforcement
It’s compassionate and more effective – it’s all about HOW you enforce the rules.
Part III – Empathy-Drive Enforcement (TM)
Psychology of voluntary Compliance
Emotional Contagion  – Mirror neurons fire in response to positive or negative emotion.  Mirror neurons are stronger in women, who tend to have greater empathy as a result.  You can catch negative emotions and give away your own emotions.  Be Aware.  People are more likely to voluntarily comply if you share positive emotions. 
The Psychology Conflict teaches that you can’t think abstractly when you are angry, but that is when you most need abstract thought to have empathy and problem-solving skills. [INSERT GRAPH].  Binary thinking – when a person only considers two options – is most prevalent in a high-conflict situation.  People are more likely to voluntarily comply if you lower the level of conflict. Use reciprocity (I’ll scratch your back scenarios) to lower conflict.  What matters is perceived, not actual, treatment. Their perception is your reality – their perceived version is stronger than the actual version. People are more likely to voluntarily comply if they owe you a favor instead of 5 times the revenge. Eye for an Eye was actually a commandment to stay with a 1 to 1 retaliation, when normally humans retaliate in a disproportionate amount than they were harmed – a 1 to 5 ratio!
In relationships, there is a 5 to 1 ration – you must provide 5 positives for every 1 negative.  For example, if you miss a special dinner with your spouse, just bringing flowers isn’t enough…but if you bring flowers, a gift certificate, a favorite food, complements, and a gift…then maybe you’ll be forgiven.
Relationship Builders: compliments, questions (conversations that show you care), deeds, and touch
Relationship Destroyers: criticism, defensiveness (expect problems/combativeness), stonewalling (silent treatment and repeating the same answer), and contempt (the worse, shows the other person is worth less than you and is often shown through body language).
People are more likely to voluntarily comply if you do five positive things before you ask. 
Psychological Inertia – Positive relationships will continue moving in that direction – an option in motion will tend to stay in motion.  It matters how an interaction starts – the First Five Seconds.  He showed a great video demonstrating the importance of eye contact, introducing yourself, asking for their name, and asking how you can help.  People are more likely to voluntarily comply if you get their emotions moving in a positive direction instead of a negative direction.  It takes FIVE times the effort to reverse a negative interaction.
Neurochemical chemistry of aggression and empathy
Serotonin, Dopamine, and Oxytocin decrease aggression and increase empathy. A handshake raises oxytocin, as does eye contact, social standing (being treated like an equal), and predictable ritual (especially for people with autism).
Cortisol increases aggression, causes the fight/flight reflex, created when feeling threatened by a saber tooth tiger – life or death. Homeless individuals are AWLAYS in this state, their brain is “swimming in a pool of cortisol.” People are more likely to voluntarily comply if you help them have the proper brain chemistry. 
Likeability – When people like you, they comply and help. Favors – get potential funders to do favors for the library – makes us more likeable!  We like people who like us.   People are more likely to voluntarily comply if they like you, which you can accomplish by showing that you like them and let them do favors for you. 
Legitamcy – Three requirements for authority figure to be viewed as legitimate:
1) Be listened to (have an audience)
2) Rules are predicable and
3) Rule enforcement is fair (for example, does a library tell the bank president who comes in stinking after a workout that he smells or just the homeless individual?)
What is not required? toughness, seriousness (jokers can be legit), or distance/aloofness
Rigid consistency can be a problem because sometimes you cannot be consistent and fair – autism rude v. jerk rude.  People are more likely to voluntarily comply if they view you as legitimate. 
Additional Concepts:
Prepare for Problems: Form habits or muscle memories – know how to use your tools. Practice doing it right everytime – develop a routine, use scripts/set statements (Appendix of the guide). Just Do It – practice working with problem patrons – see them as a learning opportunity, rather than a threat.
Solve problems as early as possible – before any conflict erupts. Non-verbal cues start fights, then “mouth follows body into stupidity.”  Gather more tools – Empathy “blue” tools and a few Fire/Punishment “red” tools (he had a toolbelt with actual red and blue tools…
Mindset Tools
We have enormous influence over patron behavior – 80% is prevention and staff training
Start with your Empathy Tools and leave punishment as a last resort.
Lead, Don’t Follow Pull not push – can you push a string? No, you have to pull it.  Lead them where you want them to go, don’t follow them into stupid stuff.  Model appropriate behavior. Whoever controls the TONE of the conversation, controls the situation.
Know Your Goal – It’s simple – “Compliance with the Rules” – don’t care what they think of you, think in general – just comply with the rule.  Don’t make it about you – keep ego out of it.  Don’t care what they thinki, as long as they do what we want them to do – It’s Not About You!
Focus on what your patrons action not what they think.
Don’t Judge – Imagine they are a relative and treat them as such, with dignity.  Treat them the way you would want your family treated.  Help stop judgment by remember the kid you felt most sorry for. Helps explain their behavior.  Hurt people hurt people.
Be Calm – Mirror neurons – your calm is contagious. Calm leads to calm because of psychological inertia, and BREATHING is the key to calmness.
When stressed out, don’t suffocate yourself.  You can generate anxiety from oxygen deprivation > an emotional response to the physical deprivation leads to illogical actions…so BREATHE.  Pause and ask, “Am I breathing?”
Be Respectful – Honor culture demands it – you earn respect by being respectful.  Use honorifics or Sir/Mam, use your formal register, especially when you first meet someone and during conflict.  It is in our best interest for the homeless individual to behave and comply.  Learn from Big Bird and Barney!  Manners and common courtesy. Turn up the respect in the first five seconds. The three times is it helpful to be disrespectful: never, Never, NEVER – It just makes matters worse, like Russian roulette.
Slowdown – “Slow is smooth and smooth is fast.” Take time to resolve small problems to prevent worse problems.  A two minute intervention v. a 2 hour issue.
Pre-Conflict Tools – 1st stage of conflict
Stages of conflict go from Pre-conflict to Non-verbal Escalation to Verbal Escalation to Crisis
Cups of Pennies – Consider it a respect-o-meter.  Fill your cup with pennies (courtesies, positive interactions, legitimacy, respect, Oxytocin from a handshake, etc.) in advance, before problems erupt.  Target certain patrons to focus your pennies on – for example, Ryan scans the shelter each night and sees who he needs to interact with to help head off any potential problems.
Use Names – Give your name, then ask for a name.  Offer First. If they don’t reciprocate, use Sir or Mam, not “Hey You.” Ask patrons to call you by your first name. 
Small Talk – Compliments and questions – ways to build relationships. What trade were they in? Likes? Dislikes? – He had examples of some crazy and some very true past experiences, like one guy who was secret service for Bill Clinton. Do what society is not willing to do.  Add pennies to the cup.
Be Walmart – Greet everyone.  Walmart greeters were brought in to stop shoplifting, but their customer satisfaction rating soared after introducing them…because while they let the potential shoplifters know they were paying attention, they made the non-shoplifters feel welcome.  Say Hello, let everyone know they have been seen and acknowledged.
Shaking Hands – Profoundly effective. Same amount of Oxytocin as a 3 hour conversation.   Hands should be shaken parallel (not in a way that shows dominance or submission), handshake should be equal distance between both people, your left hand should be kept out of your pocket, you should shake 3 times, and you should squeeze the same pounds per square inch as checking a peach for ripeness (then buy the peach).  Leave the desk, come around to shake hands.
NON-VERBAL TOOLS – 2nd stage of conflict
Where to Stand – When talking with someone about compliance, remember Honor culture and let them save face by taking the conversation to a less public place.  Legitimacy issues if inconsistent.  More wiggle room if you keep the conversation private.
Body ‘language’ – Perception – Smile. We remember our words, but not our body. He showed a video without the sound of a staff member with a scowl and arms folding, who was saying “Hello, welcome to the library.” Side discussion about Resting Jerk Face – for homeless individuals, if resting jerk face projects contempt, this can lead to misunderstandings because of the non-verbal message it communicates. Change it if possible.
How to Stand – Stand with a 15% turn of the body – all conversation, not confrontation. Allows for tension to escape. / \ not | |. Make this a habit – do it with every conversation, so it becomes second nature.
Your Hands – Calm messaging with the hands – put them in pocket or behind back – in a neutral position.  If speaking with a paranoid person, make sure your hands can be seen or if you fear violence.  Don’t: Point, cross arms, make a fist, or put your hands on your hips.  These can be seen as aggressive.
When in Danger: Praying Ninja _/\_ – increases confidence or the Thinker or cross your heart X – pick one and make it habit.
Don’t Touch – Uninvited touch is a trigger and don’t touch stuff – use words. Wake up a sleeping patron with words.  PTSD – they may come awake swinging.  Knocking on the table could be seen as rude.  If you have to touch, keep furniture between you or touch the middle of the back, where they can’t swing at you.   Don’t crouch – you are putting your nose by their elbow.  If they are wearing earbuds, you may tap their knee to get their attention, but immediately apologize.  (Article on people sleeping/snoring) First instinct is to hit/punch. Ryan told about a time he forgot this and came up behind a homeless man at the shelter and touched him on the shoulder – the man came swinging around with his fist raised, but saw and recognized Ryan and just say, “Oh, Hi Ryan, how are you?”  Side discussion about sexual harassment and aggression – only give ONE warning and then hand the person off to a supervisor.  Convey calmly that there is a rule about not touching staff and move to the side away from the touch, so non-verbal cues reinforce the verbal.
Smile 🙂 Blood tests revealed that looking at a smiling baby shoots up the positive brain chemicals giving you the same buzz and copious amounts of chocolate. A smiling adult only gives you 10% of the baby buzz, but still the equivalent to 22 lbs of chocolate.  Smiling is ONLY a pre-conflict tool, if you smile during a conflict it looks like you are an everyday sadist.
Eye Contact – Avoid glaring or not looking a person in the eye at all. Ideally you should maintain 60-70% eye contact with 30-40% without contact to show respect.  When not maintaining eye contact, look at the floor.  6-7 seconds looking at the individual, then 3-4 seconds looking at the floor.
VERBAL TOOLS – 3rd stage of conflict
Talk Quieter – They will be louder, so you be quieter. 1 decibel lower is idea – Lead into quiet
Talk Calmer – Avoid sounding frantic and speak like a meditation video with pregnant pauses.
Listen – You earn pennies in your cup for just listening.  Active Listening – Repeat what you THINK you heard them say to help avoid miscommunication.  His example was with a patron who was banned and complained to him about it, he reiterated, “So, if I am hearing you right, you are upset that you were banned for 2 weeks?”  “No man, I was a jerk, I deserved that…but she was disrespectful to me!”  The issue was not technical (how long) but emotional (respect).  The complaint was about how they were made to feel and this was clarified by repeating back their statement.  Scripts: “Correct me if I’m wrong…”  “I think what I hear you saying is…” or “If I understand you…”
Be Sad – Show empathy and avoid being an everyday sadist – if you have to reprimand someone, don’t take pleasure in it. Be sad about it.  “It upsets me to enforce these rules, but…” “I’m really sorry I have to do this, but…” NO JOKES – it can be perceived as “they’re laughing at me.”  It is OK to apologize while enforcing the rules.  ODOR Example – common questions on the Web site (whole article on this topic).
Explain – don’t debate. Don’t dictate.  Good rules are not up for debate.  Saying “Because those are the rules!” is disrespectful, but give an explanation for the rule – “Because people are studying.” “Because we have ants.” “Because it disturbs other people using the library.” “Because it could trip up someone and hurt them.” (Article on Too Many Bags in the Library)
Explain. Blame the Rules. Just blame the organization, the boss, or the Board.  “It’s not me and you, it’s THEM” – that nebulous body of people up there who make all the rules.  Ryan routinely blames his Board.  Shift the blame to someone out of the room – even blame the boss if you are the boss.  One time, he blamed the State of Illinois.  “I don’t want to lose my job.”  Example from the Delusion’s Article:  “I’m not sure about that [delusion you think is real], but either way our Board of Directors insists that ALL books be put in the right section.  If books are in the wrong place, I get in trouble.”

CRISIS TOOLS – 4th stage of conflict
When to Call the Police – Ryan feels we should hold this “Nuclear” option for Dangerous situations and when a person has been asked to leave and they refuse. Don’t cry wolf – if you threaten to call the police, you must call the police. This is the “ultimate Fire tool” for punishment. Calling the police takes longer to resolve the problem than pleading for the person to just leave. It is disruptive when the Police arrive and can cause trauma and anxiety for other people in the library (undocumented, parolees, etc.). You garner more Respect if you are able to handle the crisis yourself (Honor culture folks are watching what you do).  If you have pleaded and they refuse, “Fine, call them if you want” – then they have given you NO choice.
Have a code name for the Police
How to do Backup – Get a colleague to call – don’t do it while standing next to the person near their peers – that’s everyday sadistic.  Have a strategy.  When you speak to the person (away from others standing at a 15 degree angle /\, have your backup standing 5-10 feet away to monitor and call 911 if asked.  The primary person should do the talking, the backup is moral support and crowd control.  In high-stakes conflict, the primary person should be the senior member of staff, while in low-stakes conflict the person who needs training and practice should be the primary.  The senior person can then coach.
How to break up a fight – Peacocking fight v. a real fight.  Peacocking fights are loud and slow – they need a reputation for violence to keep them safe, so in this type of fight they want you to break it up so they can save face.  a REAL fight is fash and quiet – you hear the crowd or breaking furniture, not the fighters.  Procedure: Clear the room, Call 911, Let them fight it out until the trained police arrive.
How to ask someone to leave:
1. Make sure you have pennies in your cut – it’s not personal, just the job.
2. Take a minute to listen – let them plead their case
3. Use baby steps – have them gather up their stuff for a quiet discussion near the door, then tell them they’ll have to leave, and finally tell them it’s for 2 weeks.
4. Make sure they know it’s not personal – “we are still cool”
5. Give them the hope for a Fresh Start – share information about appeal process (even if the appeal will be denied) and/or let them know that when they come back, all is forgiven and they start with a clean slate.

Appendix: Your Personal Phrases